Publications

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1541 Publications visible to you, out of a total of 1541

Abstract (Expand)

Effective, unbiased, high-throughput methods to functionally identify both class II and class I HLA–presented T cell epitopes and their cognate T cell receptors (TCRs) are essential for and prerequisite to diagnostic and therapeutic applications, yet remain underdeveloped. Here, we present T-FINDER [T cell Functional Identification and (Neo)-antigen Discovery of Epitopes and Receptors], a system to rapidly deconvolute CD4 and CD8 TCRs and targets physiologically processed and presented by an individual’s unmanipulated, complete human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype. Combining a highly sensitive TCR signaling reporter with an antigen processing system to overcome previously undescribed limitations to target expression, T-FINDER both robustly identifies unknown peptide:HLA ligands from antigen libraries and rapidly screens and functionally validates the specificity of large TCR libraries against known or predicted targets. To demonstrate its capabilities, we apply the platform to multiple TCR-based applications, including diffuse midline glioma, celiac disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, providing unique biological insights and showcasing T-FINDER’s potency and versatility.

Authors: Miray Cetin, Veronica Pinamonti, Theresa Schmid, Tamara Boschert, Ana Mellado Fuentes, Kristina Kromer, Taga Lerner, Jing Zhang, Yonatan Herzig, Christopher Ehlert, Miguel Hernandez-Hernandez, Georgios Samaras, Claudia Maldonado Torres, Laura Fisch, Valeriia Dragan, Arlette Kouwenhoven, Bertrand Van Schoubroeck, Hans Wils, Carl Van Hove, Michael Platten, Edward W. Green, Frederik Stevenaert, Nathan J. Felix, John M. Lindner

Date Published: 2nd Feb 2024

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

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Authors: Johannes Bracher, Nils Koster, Fabian Krüger, Sebastian Lerch

Date Published: 1st Feb 2024

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

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Authors: Jonas R. Brehmer, Tilmann Gneiting, Marcus Herrmann, Warner Marzocchi, Martin Schlather, Kirstin Strokorb

Date Published: 1st Feb 2024

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Stellar mergers are responsible for a wide variety of phenomena such as rejuvenated blue stragglers, highly magnetised stars, spectacular transients, iconic nebulae, and stars with peculiar surface chemical abundances and rotation rates. Before stars merge, they enter a contact phase. Here, we investigate which initial binary-star configurations lead to contact and classical common-envelope (CE) phases and assess the likelihood of a subsequent merger. To this end, we computed a grid of about 6000 detailed 1D binary evolution models with initial component masses of 0.5 − 20.0 M⊙ at solar metallicity. Both components were evolved, and rotation and tides were taken into account. We identified five mechanisms that lead to contact and mergers: runaway mass transfer, mass loss through the outer Lagrange point L2, expansion of the accretor, orbital decay because of tides, and non-conservative mass transfer. At least 40% of mass-transferring binaries with initial primary-star masses of 5 − 20 M⊙ evolve into a contact phase; > 12% and > 19% likely merge and evolve into a CE phase, respectively. Because of the non-conservative mass transfer in our models, classical CE evolution from late Case-B and Case-C binaries is only found for initial mass ratios qi < 0.15 − 0.35. For larger mass ratios, we find stable mass transfer. In early Case-B binaries, contact occurs for initial mass ratios qi < 0.15 − 0.35, while in Case-A mass transfer, this is the case for all qi in binaries with the initially closest orbits and qi < 0.35 for initially wider binaries. Our models predict that most Case-A binaries with mass ratios of q < 0.5 upon contact mainly get into contact because of runaway mass transfer and accretor expansion on a thermal timescale, with subsequent L2-overflow in more than half of the cases. Thus, these binaries likely merge quickly after establishing contact or remain in contact only for a thermal timescale. On the contrary, Case-A contact binaries with higher mass ratios form through accretor expansion on a nuclear timescale and can thus give rise to long-lived contact phases before a possible merger. Observationally, massive contact binaries are almost exclusively found with mass ratios q > 0.5, confirming our model expectations. Because of non-conservative mass transfer with mass transfer efficiencies of 15 − 65%, 5 − 25%, and 25 − 50% in Case-A, -B, and -C mass transfer, respectively (for primary-star masses above 3 M⊙), our contact, merger, and classical CE incidence rates are conservative lower limits. With more conservative mass transfer, these incidences would increase. Moreover, in most binaries, the non-accreted mass cannot be ejected, raising the question of the further evolution of such systems. The non-accreted mass may settle into circumstellar and circumbinary disks, but could also lead to further contact systems and mergers. Overall, contact binaries are a frequent and fascinating result of binary mass transfer of which the exact outcomes still remain to be understood and explored further.

Authors: J. Henneco, F. R. N. Schneider, E. Laplace

Date Published: 1st Feb 2024

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

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Authors: Giulia Paiardi, Maria Milanesi, Matheus Ferraz, Liv Zimmermann, Chiara Urbinati, Pasqua Oreste, Francesca Caccuri, Petr Chlanda, Marco Rusnati, Rebecca C. Wade

Date Published: 1st Feb 2024

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

As part of the BioHackathon Europe 2023, we here report on the progress of the hacking team preparing a resource index and knowledge graph based on the JSON-LD Bioschemas markup from several resourcesal resources in the life- and natural sciences, predominantly from the fields of plant- and (bio)chemistry research. This preliminary analysis will allow us to better understand how Bioschemas markup is currently used in these two communities, so we can take actions to improve guidelines and validation on the Bioschemas markup and the data providers side. The lessons learnt will be useful for other communities as well. The ultimate goal is facilitating and improving interoperability across resources.

Authors: Daniel Arend, Alessio Del Conte, Manuel Feser, Yojana Gadiya, Alban Gaignard, Leyla Jael Castro, Ivan Mičetić, Sebastien Moretti, Steffen Neumann, Noura Rayya, Ginger Tsueng, Egon Willighagen, Ulrike Wittig

Date Published: 30th Jan 2024

Publication Type: Misc

Abstract (Expand)

The theoretical oscillation frequencies of even the best asteroseismic models of solar-like oscillators show significant differences from observed oscillation frequencies. Structure inversions seek to use these frequency differences to infer the underlying differences in stellar structure. While used extensively to study the Sun, structure inversion results for other stars have so far been limited. Applying sound speed inversions to more stars allows us to probe stellar theory over a larger range of conditions, as well as look for overall patterns that may hint at deficits in our current understanding. To that end, we present structure inversion results for 12 main-sequence solar-type stars with masses between 1 and 1.15M⊙. Our inversions are able to infer differences in the isothermal sound speed in the innermost 30% by radius of our target stars. In half of our target stars, the structure of our best-fit model fully agrees with the observations. In the remainder, the inversions reveal significant differences between the sound speed profile of the star and that of the model. We find five stars where the sound speed in the core of our stellar models is too low and one star showing the opposite behavior. For the two stars in which our inversions reveal the most significant differences, we examine whether changing the microphysics of our models improves them and find that changes to nuclear reaction rates or core opacities can reduce, but do not fully resolve, the differences.

Authors: Lynn Buchele, Earl P. Bellinger, Saskia Hekker, Sarbani Basu, Warrick Ball, Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard

Date Published: 26th Jan 2024

Publication Type: Journal

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